HUMAN PAPILLOMAVIRUS (HPV)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and can often pass from one partner to another without signs or symptoms for years. In some cases HPV can go away on its own while in more serious cases, HPV is associated with cervical, vulvar, rectal dysplasia (cellular atypia) and cancer. Unlike gonorrhea or chlamydia which can be treated with antibiotics. HPV is a virally transmitted STD. Since HPV is a virus and there is no treatment, the best way to protect yourself is to get vaccinated and use condoms during sexual intercourse to protect against HPV and more serious STDs such as HIV AIDS, syphilis and hepatitis. [more info]
Myomectomy is the removal of uterine fibroids. Uterine fibroids may often be diagnosed by hysteroscopy in our office. This is a minor procedure with a scope which enters the uterine cavity through the cervix. There are no abdominal incisions, and this procedure can be performed as an outpatient. You can be back to your normal life the next day. Myomectomy is usually performed for heavy menses, can preserve the uterine integrity for future pregnancy, and prevent the need for a major surgical procedure called hysterectomy. [more info]
Colposcopy is a way of looking at the cervix through a special magnifying device called a colposcope which may be performed in our office. It shines a light into the vagina and onto the cervix. Colposcopy is done when the results of cervical screening tests show abnormal changes in the cells of the cervix and provides more information about the abnormal cells. [more info]
Hysteroscopy is the use of advanced medical technology to diagnose or treat problems of the uterus which may be performed in our office. A hysteroscope is a thin, lighted telescope-like device. It is inserted into your uterus. Hysteroscopy can be used for many things, but one of the most common uses for hysteroscopy is to find the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding. It can also be used to remove scar tissue. [more info]
Endometrial ablation, which may be performed in our office, destroys a thin layer of the lining of the uterus and significantly decreases or stops the menstrual flow in many women. Endometrial ablation is used to treat many causes of heavy bleeding. Pregnancy is not likely after ablation, but it can happen. If pregnancy does occur after ablation, the risk of miscarriage and other problems are significantly increased. If a woman still wants to become pregnant, she should not have the ablation procedure. Women who have endometrial ablations should use birth control until after menopause. Sterilization may be a good option to prevent pregnancy after ablation. [more info]
Sonohysteroscopy (saline ultrasound), which may be performed in our office, is a technique in which saline fluid is injected through the cervix into the uterus, and ultrasound is used to make images of the uterine cavity. The fluid shows more detail inside the uterus than when ultrasound is used alone. Sonohysteroscopy can find the underlying cause of many problems, including abnormal uterine bleeding, infertility, and repeated miscarriage. The procedure can detect the following conditions: abnormal growths inside the uterus, such as fibroids or polyps; scarring inside the uterus; abnormal uterine shape. Sonohysteroscopy is also done before and after some surgical procedures. [more info]
Uterine fibroids are benign (non-cancerous) growths that develop from the muscle tissue of the uterus. Symptomatic fibroids may be diagnosed in our office with a hysteroscope. Uterine fibroids are also called leiomyomas or myomas. The size, shape, and location of the fibroids can vary widely. Fibroids may be present inside the uterus, on its outer surface, within its wall, or attached to it by a stem-like structure. A woman may only have one fibroid or many of varying sizes. A fibroid can remain small for a long time then grow rapidly or grow slowly over many years. Some symptoms of fibroids include changes in menstruation, longer, more frequent or heavy menstrual periods, menstrual pain (cramps), vaginal bleeding at times other than menstruation and anemia. [more info]
INTRAUTERINE DEVICES (IUDS)
IUDs are considered long-acting reversible contraceptive methods. Over time, this sort of contraceptive method is 20 times more effective than birth control pills, the patch, or the ring. The IUD is a small, T-shaped plastic device that is inserted into the uterus. [more info]
There are two types of IUDs (hormonal or copper). The hormonal IUD releases progestin (Mirena and Skyla). Mirena is approved for use up to five years, and Skyla is approved for use up to three years. The copper IUD, Paragard, is approved for use up to ten years. [more info]
What are some benefits of IUDs?
Once an IUD is in place, you do not have to do anything else to prevent pregnancy. No one can tell you are using birth control. It does not interfere with sexual intercourse or daily activities. Almost all women can use IUDs. If you wish to become pregnant or want to stop using it, you simply have to have the IUD removed. Mirena and Skyla also help to decrease menstrual pain and heavy menstrual bleeding. [more info]
Available evidence suggests that IUDs are more effective and have higher rates of satisfaction in nulliparous women (women who have not given birth) compared with oral contraceptives. [more info]
There are no studies demonstrating an increased risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in nulliparous IUD users, and no evidence that IUD use is associated with subsequent infertility. [more info]
ABNORMAL PAP SMEAR TESTS
Diagnosis: (ASCUS) Atypical squamous cells of underdetermined significance: This diagnosis means some of the cells on your Pap smear test did not look entirely normal but did not meet diagnostic criteria for a lesion. You may be asked to repeat your Pap smear test or have a colposcopy. [more info]
Diagnosis: (LSIL) Low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion: This diagnosis means there are early changes in the size and shape of the cells. You may be asked to repeat your Pap smear test or have a colposcopy. [more info]
Diagnosis: (HSIL) High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion: This diagnosis means the cells appear very different from normal cells. These precancerous lesions are more severe than LSIL but involve cells on the surface of the cervix. You may be asked to have a colposcopy. [more info]
ESSURE (HYSTEROSCOPIC PERMANENT STERILIZATION)
Essure is a permanent birth control, also known as hysteroscopic sterilization which may be performed in our office. Essure involves closing off the fallopian tubes, which prevents the egg from moving down the fallopian tube to the uterus. Essure uses the body's natural openings to place small spring implants into the fallopian tubes. These cause tissue growth that blocks the tubes.
Essure is performed by inserting a tiny device into each fallopian tube with a hysteroscope. It allows the inside of the uterus and tubal openings to be seen. Once the devices are in place, scar tissue forms around them.
It takes three months after the procedure for the tubes to be blocked entirely by scar tissue. While that scar tissue is forming, it is possible to become pregnant. After three months, an X-ray known as a hysterosalpingography (HSG) is done to make sure that the fallopian tubes are blocked. You should use a backup method of birth control until your HSG confirms that the fallopian tubes are blocked. [more info]